Monday, December 22, 2014

Disk / Storage Timeline

First cut at timeline of significant events in Disk and Storage, ignoring "historical" devices like floppies and bubble memory. Edward Grochowski's 2012 "Flash Memory Summit" talk tracks multiple storage capacity, price & technology from 1990.

First commercial computers were built  in 1950 and 1951: LEO[UK], Zuse[DE] and UNIVAC[US].
LEO claim the first working Application in 1951.
 [1949: BINAC built by the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation for Northrup]

Ignored technologies include:
Tapes: used in the first computers as large, cheap linear access storage.
Drums: in use a little later and continued for some time, often in specialist roles (paging).

Disk / Storage Timeline
1956IBM 305/350 RAMAC, Disk. [Volumes, DASD, extents, Partition Datasets, CHS-addressing, count-key-data structure - variable-length blocks ]

1964IBM OS/360 "Partition Datasets", count-key-data disks, IBM-DOS et al: Datasets and ISAM
1969Unix V5?. PDP-7/11, hierarchical file system, inodes + "setuid" bit (patented).

1974UNIX V6, CACM. 512by sectors, RK-05 [2.5MB + 36.5MB tape (2400', 1600bpi)
tools: ar, tar, dump, restore
PDP-11.hierarchical fsys, single-root + mount, pipes, setuid, dirs, inodes, hard links, {owner, groups, permissions}, times.
read(), write(), seek(), stat(), open(), close(), creat(), unlink(), link()

1974HSM by IBM. Tape Cartridges. IBM 3850 Mass Storage Facility. 6250bpi?
1974CP/M, Kidall, Digital Research. File System with "A:" volumes.
1976PWB, Programmers Workbench. SCCS - Version Control, RJE (Remote Job Entry), shell, troff -mm, make, {find, xargs, cpio, expr, egrep}, yacc, lex.
1979IBM “Fixed-block Architecture” 3370, 512by sectors

1980FAT-12, vols 32MB/512by, 256MB/4K sectors
1981ACID for DB’s. Jim Gray, “Transaction Concept: Virtues & Limitations”
1982RCS (Revision Control System), BSD
19834.2BSD, symlinks [1978: DEC and RDOS]
1983MBR boot, partitions
1983Reuter & Haerder, coined 'ACID': "Principles of transaction-oriented database recovery”
1983Tolerant Systems [later Veritas]. check-pointing Apps, Journaling FileSys +N-plex (RAID 1, N-vol)
1983‘locate/updatedb’ utility for Unix. DB of all files on system.
1984FAT-16, vols 2GB vol, 4GB with Large File Support
1984NFS, Sun.
1984compress (LZW)
1985High Sierra (CD-ROM), ECMA
1986CVS (Concurrent Version Sys) in shell
1986Filesystem Switch, System VR3
1986RFS - System VR3.
1986IDE/ATA Logical Block Addrs, lba-22 [lba-28, 1996, all drives. max 128GiB/137GB] lba-48 current. 128PiB. FileSys/inode functionality
1988ISO 9660 (CD-ROM)
1988Tivoli Storage Mgr, TSM. HSM with GPFS.
1989Lotus Notes. DB/file replication.
1989RAID: Rethinking Single Large Expensive Drives. IBM 3390, last of this line: 1989-1993
1989Veritas, VxVM, LVM? AT&T, SUN, AIX, HP-UX.
1989PKzip. 1st ".zip” archival & compression format

1990ACL papers, MITRE Corp.
1990CVS (Concurrent Version Sys) in 'C'
1990EMC Symmetrix 4200 integrated cached disk array, 24Gb. RAID-0, striped.
1991Plan 9, Overlay Mounts, isolated user views, fossil (dedupe), cached storage
1991Veritas File System, VxFS. JFS on HP-UX1992 - RBAC paper. Ferraiolo & Kuha, Mandatory & Discretionary Access Controls.
1992WAFL, NetApp
1993MOSIX distributed O/S. SSI?
1993NetApp Snapshots, RAID-4 (single parity, WAFL) 1st filer shipped.. NAS: NFS, SMB
1993Trusted Solaris (B1), ACL's
1993ext2, 32TB
1994IBM patent on RBAC
1994MS-DOS 6.22 DoubleSpace [1991 1st vrs]
1994RockRidge, Joleiet (CR-ROM)
1994StorTech Iceberg: RAID + Thin Provisioning/Over-Allocation
1994XFS, SGI, 8EB
1995ATA/IDE interface on all new consumer disks
1995Beowulf clusters
1996FAT-32, 2TB / 16TB
1996Garth Gibson paper, Object Stores [successor to RAID]
1996NDMP: Network Data Management Protocol, NetApp, Legato. direct backup of Datastores.
1996Solaris MC: Single System Image, SSI
1996rsync - FOSS replication
19971Gbps FCAL. SAN’s begin.
1997RBAC DB products
1998HFS+, Apple
1998Unixware Cluster: Single System Image
19991Gbps Ethernet. IEEE 802.3ab, twisted-pair
1999ISO-9660 (CD-ROM)
1999Intel EFI 0.9. GUID Partition Table: GPT
1999Linuxcare Bootable Business Card: cloop - compressed ISO [Knoppix] avg 2.5:1 ratio, 64Kb pages
1999VAX Multipathing [OpenVMS]
1999ext3, 32TB

2000Subversion (client-server version control)
200210Gbps Ethernet Fibre. 802.3ae
2002ATA-6 spec: LBA-48 and CHS obsolete
2003Power over Ethernet. 802.3af
2003VMware: vMotion, live image migration
2004Data Domain: Purpose-built backup appliances, PBBA. 1.25TB. 50:1 compression, Data DeDupe
2004Panasas ships 1st Object Store Product
2004ZFS, 256ZB
2004Lustre 1.2.0,March 2004, Linux kernel 2.6
2005UEFI boot + GPT. OS/X 10.4.0 ‘Tiger’ on Intel,
2005Full text search, consumer desktop. “Spotlight”, OS/X 10.4
2005exFAT, 512TB
2005Git - distributed version control
2005Mercurial - distributed version control
2006ext4, 1EB
2007Brtfs, Oracle
2007Fusion-io PCI Flash demonstrated
2008Flash ‘TRIM’ command defined. ACS-2 command set.
2008VMware: Storage vMotion, Local Datastores to/from SAN/shared datastores
2009Advanced Format: 4096by sectors, hard disk
2009SquashFS, 2.6.29 kernel. max 1Mb pages
2009Spotlight full-text search, iOS 3.0

201040&100Gbps Ethernet. 802.3ba. Fibre mostly.
2011PureStorage: Flash Array, 1st data centre all-flash device
2012VMware: Storage vMotion, Local Datastores to/from local datastores
2014Seagate Kinetic drive, ethernet [2x 1Gbps SGMI ethernet], 1Kb Keys, 1Mb Objects
2014/5WD/HGST Open Ethernet Drive Architecture
2015Seagate release SMR (Shingled) drives. Market seems underwhelmed.
2016Samsung release 16TB SSD in 2.5", smaller, faster, less power-hungry than HDD's. x8 GB/Rack Unit

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